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General High Seas Conservation References

  • Abdulla, A., Gomei, M., Hyrenbach, D., Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara, G. and Agardy, T. 2008. Challenges facing a network of representative marine protected areas in the Mediterranean: prioritizing the protection of underrepresented habitats. ICES J. Mar. Sci.: fsn164.
  • Agardy, T., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. & Christie, P. 2011. Mind the gap: Addressing the shortcomings of marine protected areas through large scale marine spatial planning. Marine Policy 35 (2011) 226–232.
  • Alpine, J. E. and Hobday, A. J. 2007. Area requirements and pelagic protected areas: is size an impediment to implementation? Marine and Freshwater Research, 58: 558-569.
  • Ardron, J. 2007. Overview of existing high seas spatial measures and proposals with relevance to high seas conservation. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation.
  • Ardron, J., Gjerde, K., Pullen, S. and Tilot, V. 2008. Marine spatial planning in the high seas. Marine Policy, 32: 832-839.
  • Auster P.J., Gjerde K., Heupel, E, Watling L., Grehan A., Rogers A.D. 2011. Definition and detection of vulnerable marine ecosystems on the high seas: Problems with the Move-On Rule. ICES J Marine Science 68(2), 254–264.
  • Cheung, W., Alder, J., Karpouzi, V., Watson, R., Lam, V., Day, C., Kaschner, K., et al. 2005. Patterns of Species Richness in the High Seas. Technical Report no. 20. 31 pp. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal
  • Clark, M. R., Tittensor, D., Rodgers, A. D., Brewin, P., Schlacher, T., Rowden, A., Stocks, K., et al. 2006. Seamounts, Deep-Sea Corals and Fisheries: Vulnerability of Deep-Sea Corals to Fishing on Seamounts Beyond Areas on National Jurisdiction. UNEP-WCMC Cambridge, UK
  • Clark M.R., Schlacher, T.A., Rowden, A.A., Stocks, K.I., Consalvey, M. 2012. Science Priorities for Seamounts: Research Links to Conservation and Management. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29232. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.002923.
  • Claudet, J. (ed), 2011. Marine Protected Areas - A Multidisciplinary Approach. Cambridge University Press - Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation Series, Cambridge, UK.
  • Convention on Biological Diversity 2008. Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, COP9 Decision IX/20 (Annex 1-3), Bonn, 19-30 May 2008.
  • Corrigan, C. and Kershaw, F. 2008. Working Toward High Seas Marine Protected Areas: An Assessment of Progress Made and Recommendations for Collaboration.UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK
  • Davies, A.J. and Guinotte, J.M. 2011. Global habitat suitability for framework-forming cold-water corals. PLoS One 6(4): e18483. (doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0018483)
  • Dearden, P. & Topelko, K.N. 2005. Establishing criteria for the identification of ecolo-gically and biologically significant areas on the high seas. Victoria: Marine Protected Areas Research Group, University of Victoria; p.34
  • Druel, E., Bille, R. & Treyer, S. 2011. A legal scenario analysis for marine protected areas in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Report from the Bologne-sur-Mer seminar, 18-21 September 2011 [Download PDF]. 
  • Dunn, D.C. (ed.), Ardron, J., Ban, N., Bax, N., Bernal, P., Bograd, S., Corrigan, C., Dunstan, P., Game, E., Gjerde, K., Grantham, H., Halpin, P.N., Harrison, A.L., Hazen, E., Lagabrielle, E., Lascelles, B., Maxwell, S., McKenna, S., Nicol, S., Norse, E., Palacios, D., Reeve, L., Shillinger, G., Simard, F., Sink, K., Smith, F., Spadone, A., Würtz, M., 2011. Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas in the Pelagic Realm: Examples & Guidelines – Workshop Report. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 44pp. [Read online
  • Dunstan, P.K. Clark, M.R., Guinotte, J., O’Hara, T., Niklitschek, E., Rowden, A.A., Schlacher, T., Tsuchida, S., Watling, L., Williams, A., 2011. Identifying Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas on Seamounts. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 14pp.[Read online]
  • Earle, S. 2005. Foreword: high time for High Seas marine protected areas. Parks, 15: 3-4.
  • FAO. 2007. Report and documentation of the expert consultation on deep-sea fisheries in the high seas, Bangkok, Thailand, 21–23 November 2006.  FAO Fisheries Report no. 838. 203 pp, Rome, Italy
  • Durán Muñoz, P., Sayago-Gil, M.,Murillo, F.J., Del Río, J.L., López-Abellán, L.J., Sacau, M., Sarralde, R., 2012. Actions taken by fishing Nations towards identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems in the high seas: The Spanish case (Atlantic Ocean). Marine Policy 36 (2), 536–543
  • FAO. 2009. International Guidelines for the Management of Deep-sea Fisheries in the High Seas. 73 pp, Rome.
  • Fidelman, F., Evans, L., Fabinyi, M., Foale, S., Cinner, J. & Rosen, F., 2012. Governing large-scale marine commons: Contextual challenges in the Coral Triangle. Marine Policy 36, 42-53.
  • Foster, E., Flood, T., Graham, A. and Exel, M. 2005. Improved oceans governance to conserve high seas biodiversity. Parks, 15: 19-23.
  • Game, E. T., Grantham, H.S., Hobday, A.J., Pressey, R.L., Lombard, A.T., Beckley, L.E., Gjerde, K.M., Bustamante, R., Possingham, H.P, and Richardson, A.J. 2009. Pelagic protected areas: the missing dimension in ocean conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
  • Gjerde, K. M. and Breide, C. 2003. Towards a Strategy for High Seas Marine Protected Areas: Proceedings of the IUCN, WCPA and WWF Experts Workshop on High Seas Marine Protected Areas, 15-17 January 2003, Malaga, Spain., Gland, Switzerland.
  • Gjerde, K. M., Dotinga, H., Hart, S., Molenaar, E. J., Rayfuse, R. and Warner, R. 2008. Options for Addressing Regulatory and Governance Gaps in the International Regime for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction. ICES Document 2. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
  • Gjerde, K. M. and Kelleher, G. 2005. High Seas marine protected areas on the horizon: legal framework and recent progress. Parks, 15: 11-18.
  • Grant, S. 2005. Challenges of marine protected area development in Antarctica. Parks, 15: 40-47.
  • Grantham, H. S., Petersen, S. L. and Possingham, H. P. 2008. Reducing bycatch in the South African pelagic longline fishery: the utility of different approaches to fisheries closures. Endangered Species Research, 5: 291-299.
  • Gregr, E.J., Ahrens, A.l., Perry, R.I., 2012. Reconciling classifications of ecologically and biologically significant areas in the world’s oceans. Marine Policy, Volume 36, Pages 716–726.
  • Gubbay, S. 2006. Marine nature conservation in the pelagic environment: a case for pelagic Marine Protected Areas? World Wildlife Fund.
  • Harris, P. T. and Whiteway, T. 2009. High seas marine protected areas: Benthic environmental conservation priorities from a GIS analysis of global ocean biophysical data. Ocean & Coastal Management, 52: 22-38.
  • Hemphill, A. H. 2005. Conservation on the High Seas – drift algae habitat as an open ocean cornerstone. Parks, 15: 48-56.
  • Hyrenbach, K. D., Forney, K. A. and Dayton, P. K. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. pp. 437-458.
  • IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). 2008. Establishing Marine Protected Area Networks—Making It Happen. Washington, D.C.: IUCN-WCPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Nature Conservancy. 118 p.
  • IUCN, Global Marine Programme 2011. Applying an ecosystem approach to fisheries management in the high seas : a focus on seamounts of the southern Indian Ocean. IUCN Global Environment Facility ; UNDP - Gland : IUCN, 2011.
  • Katsanevakis S, Stelzenmüller V, South A, Sørensen TK et al., 2011. Ecosystem-based marine spatial management: review of concepts, policies, tools, and critical issues. Ocean and Coastal Management 54: 807–820.
  • Kimball, L. 2005. The international legal regime of the high seas and the seabed beyond the limits of noational jurisdiction and options forcooperation for the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction. 64 pp. Secretariat of the Convention of on Biological Diverist, Montreal
  • Laffoley, D. 2005. Protecting earth’s last frontier: why we need a global system of High Seas marine protected area networks. Parks, 15: 5-10.
  • Laffoley, D. Gjerde, K. and Wood, L. 2008. Progress on Marine Protected Areas since the 2003 Durban World Parks Congress, and future directions, Parks Magazine, vol, 17, no.2, pp. 13-22.
  • Leary, D. 2005. Conservation and management of vulnerable deep-water ecosystems in areas beyond national jurisdiction: are marine protected areas sufficient? Parks, 15: 57-64.
  • Leathwick, J., Moilanen, A., Francis, M., Elith, J., Taylor, P., Julian, K., Hastie, T., et al. 2008. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Conservation Letters, 1: 91-102.
  • Lombard, A. T., Reyers, B., Schonegevel, L. Y., Cooper, J., Smith-Adao, L. B., Nel, D. C., Froneman, P. W., et al. 2007. Conserving pattern and process in the Southern Ocean: designing a Marine Protected Area for the Prince Edward Islands. Antarctic Science, 19: 39-54.
  • Margules, C. R., and R. L. Pressey. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243-253.
  • Sophie Marinesque, David M. Kaplan, Lynda D. Rodwell 2012. Global implementation of marine protected areas: Is the developing world being left behind? Marine Policy Volume 36, Pages 727–737.
  • Mills, C. E. and Carlton, J. T. 1998. Rationale for a System of International Reserves for the Open Ocean. 12: 244-247.
  • Morling, P. 2005. The economic rationale for marine protected areas in the High Seas. Parks, 15: 24-31.
  • Norse, E. A., Crowder, L. B., Gjerde, K., Hyrenbach, D., Roberts, C. M., Safina, C. and Soulé, M. E. 2005. Place-based ecosystem management in the open ocean. In Marine conservation biology: the science of maintaining the sea's biodiversity, pp. 302–327. Ed. by E. A. N. A. L. B. Crowder. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • O'Leary, B.C., Brown, R.L., Johnson, D.E., von Nordheim, H., Ardron, J., Packeiser, T., Roberts, C.M., 2012. The first network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the high seas: The process, the challenges and where next. Marine Policy 36, 598–605.
  • Probert, P. K. 1999. Seamounts, sanctuaries and sustainability: moving towards deep-sea conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 9: 601-605.
  • Probert, P. K., Christiansen, S., Gjerde, K. M., Gubbay, S. and Santos, R. S. 2007. Management and conservation of seamounts. In Seamounts: Ecology, Conservation and Management, pp. 442-475. Ed. by T. J. Pitcher, T. Morato, P. J. B. Hart, M. R. Clark, N. Haggan and R. S. Santos. Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
  • Rice J, de Fátima Borges M, Grehan A, Kenny A et al., 2010. Science dimensions of an ecosystem approach to management of biotic ocean resources (SEAMBOR). Marine Board-ESF/ICES/EFARO Position Paper 14, 86 p.
  • Roberts, C. M. 2002. Deep impact: the rising toll of fishing in the deep sea. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17: 242-245.
  • Robison, B. H. 2009. Conservation of Deep Pelagic Biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 23: 847-858.
  • Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2008. Synthesis and Review of the Best Available Scientific Studies on Priority Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Marine Areas beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction. Technical Report no.37. 63 pp, Montreal
  • Simpson, A. and L. Watling. 2011. Precious corals (Octocorallia: Coralliidae) from the North- western Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91: 369–382.
  • Smith, J., M. Patterson, H.M. Alidina and J. Ardron. 2009. Criteria and Tools for Desigining Ecologically Sound Marine Protected Area Networks in Canada’s Marine Regions. WWF-Canada.
  • Spalding, M., Wood, L., Fitzgerald, C., and Gjerde, K., 2010. The 10% Target: Where Do We stand?, in Toropova, C., Meliane, I., Laffoley, D., Matthews, E., and Spalding, M., eds., Global Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities: Gland, Switzerland, Arlington, USA, Cambridge, UK, Nairobi, Kenya, Tokyo, Japan, and Brest, France, IUCN, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP-WCMC, UNEP, UNU-IAS, Agence des aires marines protégées, France, p. 25-40. [Read online]
  • Spear, L. & Laughlin, T.L. 2011. IUCN/NRDC Workshop to Identify Areas of Ecological and Biological Significance or Vulnerability in the Arctic Marine Environment Workshop Report IUCN/NRDC 38pp [Read online]
  • Sumaila, U. R., Zeller, D., Watson, R., Alder, J. and Pauly, D. 2007. Potential costs and benefits of marine reserves in the high seas. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 345: 305-310.
  • Taranto, G.H., Kvile, K.Ø., Pitcher, T.J. & Morato, T. 2012. An Ecosystem Evaluation Framework for Global Seamount Conservation and Management. PLoS One 7(8): e42950. doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0042950 Read online 
  • Thiel, H. A. K., J.A. 2001. Managing Risks to Biodiversity and the Environment on the High Sea, Including Tools Such as Marine Protected Areas—Scientific Requirements and Legal Aspects. In Expert Workshop held at the International Academy for Nature Conservation, pp. 1–211. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Isle of Vilm, Germany.
  • Toropova, C., Meliane, I., Laffoley, D., Matthews, E. and Spalding, M. (eds.) 2010. Global Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities. Brest, France: Agence des aires marines protégées, Gland, Switzerland, Washington, DC and New York, USA: IUCN WCPA, Cambridge, UK : UNEP-WCMC, Arlington, USA: TNC, Tokyo, Japan: UNU, New York, USA: WCS. 96pp [Read online]
  • UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27 Report of the Tenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. COP 10 Decision X/2 [Read online]
  • UNEP-WCMC 2008. National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • Unesco 2009. Global Open Oceans and Deep Seabed (GOODS) – Biogeographic Classification. In IOC Technical Series 84. UNESCO-IOC, Paris.
  • Weaver, P.P.E. & Johnson, D.J. (2012) Think big for marine conservation. Nature 482, p399. Download PDF
  • Williams, A., Bax, N. J., Kloser, R. J., Althaus, F., Barker, B. and Keith, G. 2009. Australia's deep-water reserve network: implications of false homogeneity for classifying abiotic surrogates of biodiversity. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 66: 214-224.
  • Worm, B., Lotze, H. K. and Myers, R. A. 2003. Predator diversity hotspots in the blue ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100: 9884-9888.
  • Worm, B., Sandow, M., Oschlies, A., Lotze, H. K. and Myers, R. A. 2005. Global patterns of predator diversity in the open oceans. Science, 309: 1365-1369.
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